Breeding Management Techniques for Bulls

First, the specific mix of various types of feed:
According to the nutritional needs of the species of bulls, in the feed arrangement, it should be a full price of nutrition, a variety of coordination, palatable, easy to digest, fine, coarse, green feed to be properly matched. Concentrates should focus on proteins with high biological value, and the proportion of concentrates should be about 40% of the total nutritional value.
1, feed mix: juicy feed and roughage can not be excessive, long-term feeding too much, will increase the volume of the digestive organs of bulls, forming a "grass-bellied" and affect the efficiency of species. Feeds with high carbohydrate content (such as corn) should be fed less, otherwise it is easy to cause the calf of the breeder to lose weight and reduce the adverse consequences of breeding ability. Bean cakes and other protein-rich concentrates are a good feed for the breeding bulls, but they are physiologically acidic feeds, and they feed a lot of organic acids in the body, which is detrimental to the formation of sperm. Silage is a physiological alkaline feed, but the silage itself contains a lot of organic acids, too much feeding, the same harmful. Bone meal, salt, and other minerals have a direct bearing on the health of bulls and semen quality, especially bone meal (or other feed containing calcium and phosphorus) must be guaranteed. Salt is also important for stimulating digestive function, increasing appetite and normal metabolism, but the amount of feed should not be too much, otherwise there is some degree of inhibition on the sexual function of the bull.
When the concentrate or multi-meal feed is overdose, resulting in decreased semen quality, an appropriate amount of high-quality hay should be fed on the basis of reducing the amount of concentrate or multi-feed, and after adjustment, the quality of semen can be significantly improved. When the concentrate is too simple and affects the quality of semen, it must be added. The best feed for animal protein additives is eggs, fish meal and milk. This kind of animal feed is indispensable for frequent picking. Bulls fed a large amount of hay and other fine feeds for a long time, resulting in "grass-bellied", it is difficult to correct the feed by adjusting the feed, but the early discovery of improper feeding, as well as the possibility of adjustment and correction, this problem, often It happened during the nurturing of the young bull.
2, the amount of each type of feed given: Concentrated feed weight per 100 kg given 0.4-0.6 kg. It is best not to exceed 8 kilograms for a bull bull concentrate daily, but it is generally 5-6 kilograms, but the fine material quality requirement should be excellent. The amount of green roughage fed can be given 1-1.5 kg of hay, 0.6-0.8 kg of silage, and 0.8-1.0 kg of carrot per 100 kg of body weight. The daily amount of green roughage is about 10-12 kilograms. Summer feeding mowing (medium quality, mainly grass), weight can be fed to 2-3 kg per 100 kg. In addition, each bull can feed 0.4-0.5 kilograms of eggs each day, or 2-3 kilograms of milk, or 100-150 grams of fishmeal, 100-150 grams of bone meal per day, and 70-80 grams of salt.
Bulls should ensure adequate drinking water, before and after mating or sperm extraction, do not drink water within half an hour before and after exercise, so as not to affect the health of the bull, but do not drink dirty sewage, hail water.
Second, the kind of bull management to manage the bull, first of all should understand its characteristics. From the physiological point of view, the breeding bull is not the same as other kinds of broilers. It has the "three strong" characteristics, namely strong memory, strong defensive reflexes and strong sexual reflexes. 1. Strong memory: The bulls can remember and live in the things and people around them in the past, and those who are impressed will not forget it for many years. For example, a veterinarian who had given him medical treatment in the past or who has severely whipped it has an offensive performance when approaching. 2, defensive reflexes: Bulls have a strong self-defense. When a stranger approached, he immediately showed an attack on a stranger. Therefore, outsiders who do not understand the characteristics of the bull must not approach it easily. 3, strong sexual reflexes: the bull in the collection of fine, erect reflex, Climb reflection and ejaculation reflection are very fast, ejaculation impulse is fierce, such as long-term no sperm extraction, or mining technology is poor, the character of the bull will be bad, Evil people are prone to abuse or bad habits of masturbation. Although the characteristics of the individual bulls are different, some are fiery and some are gentle, but the three characteristics are common. In short, we must pay attention to "environmental administration and cultivation, and mastery-based training" during the breeding and management of breeding bulls.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes). The molecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein, although it may be other kinds of molecules, of different size and types, as long as the proper antibodies that have the adequate properties for the assay are developed. Analytes in biological liquids such as serum or urine are frequently measured using immunoassays for medical and research purposes.[1]

Immunoassays come in many different formats and variations. Immunoassays may be run in multiple steps with reagents being added and washed away or separated at different points in the assay. Multi-step assays are often called separation immunoassays or heterogeneous immunoassays. Some immunoassays can be carried out simply by mixing the reagents and sample and making a physical measurement. Such assays are called homogeneous immunoassays, or less frequently non-separation immunoassays.

The use of a calibrator is often employed in immunoassays. Calibrators are solutions that are known to contain the analyte in question, and the concentration of that analyte is generally known. Comparison of an assay's response to a real sample against the assay's response produced by the calibrators makes it possible to interpret the signal strength in terms of the presence or concentration of analyte in the sample.

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