The reasons and prevention and control of mushrooms without a mushroom. Improper selection of strains. Cultivation of shiitake mushrooms in the fall should be done in medium- or low-temperature and early-maturing varieties. In spring cultivation, medium-temperature or low-temperature and late-maturing varieties should be selected. If the autumn plant is a late-maturity variety, the inoculation must be carried out for 3 to 4 months before the hyphae can reach a physiological maturity. In the fall and winter, the mushrooms will not grow. In the same way, if spring cultivation is used for medium-temperature and early-maturing varieties, 60 to 70 days after inoculation, the temperature rises when the mushrooms are used, and it is not suitable for the formation of fruit bodies, so it is impossible to produce mushrooms. If the fungus tube is intact, it can be stored over the summer, and it will be able to grow normally after the autumn cool. Control methods: According to the local climate conditions and cultivation season, select the appropriate variety. Second, the mycelial development of immature mycelium inoculated on the medium, when the development of physiological maturity can be formed fruiting body. The length of bacteria is affected by species constraints and environmental conditions, and temperature is the key to the physiological maturity of mycelium. Medium and low temperature type fungi, the suitable temperature for the growth of mycelium is 20 Â°C ~ 27 Â°C, if the mycelium is under 20 Â°C for a long time, especially below 10 Â°C, although the mycelial culture for a long time, but the required accumulated temperature Not enough, mycelium development is not mature, it will not mushroom. Control methods: The bacteria bags are kept under the conditions of 20Â°Cï½ž25Â°C, or the fungus tube is piled up, the film is covered to increase the temperature of the heap, and the mycelium develops. Third, the sowing period is not suitable regardless of cultivation of what kind of mushrooms, must choose the best sowing date, the general sowing of the mushroom season for the spring and autumn. The suitable sowing time for autumn cultivation in our province is from mid-August to October. Sowing too early, the temperature is highly susceptible to bacteria; sowing too late, if there is no heating conditions, because of the low temperature is not possible mushroom. Suitable planting period for spring cultivation is from January to March. If sowing is too late, because the temperature has exceeded the temperature required for fruit body formation, it will not grow fruit. However, the fungus can be placed under suitable conditions over the summer, and when the temperature in the fall turns cooler, the mushrooms can be managed again. Control methods: According to local climate characteristics, select the appropriate sowing period. IV. Degradation of strains and non-standard seed production Because of excessive number of passages, too frequent frequency, or improper preservation, long storage time, or excessive temperature during strain preparation, bacterial strains will gradually deteriorate. If degraded strains are used, mycelium germination is delayed and germination is slow. Mycelial resistance is poor, and eventually it does not produce mushrooms or fruit. The other reason is that the seed production is not standardized. The strain seed factory saves time and reduces costs, and then expands the original species into original species, or expands the cultivated species into cultivars. Such strains show delays in production. Control methods: The production strains must strictly control the number of passages, and generally should be controlled within 4 times. The strain plant must have the basic facilities for producing strains and the conditions for the preservation of strains. It is not allowed to re-invent the original species and the cultivar is expanded again to cultivate the species. When the grower purchases strains, he should ask about the name and characteristics of the varieties, and select suitable age strains that grow neatly and robustly, without using degenerate strains and aging strains. When producing their own strains, it is necessary to calculate the growth time of the strains according to the cultivation time so as not to store the strains for too long. V. Diseases and Insect Harmfulness After pests damage cultivation materials, the normal growth of mycelium of edible fungi is affected, and mushroom buds cannot be formed. Even fruiting bodies that have formed will die and die. Some of the bacteria, nematodes, bacilli, etc. that are lurking in the material can bite the hyphae and culture materials, and their excretions make the material sticky and odorous, making the edible fungus lose its ability to produce mushrooms. Control methods: Keep mushroom house and its surrounding environment sanitized, conscientiously do a good job of disinfection work to prevent pests from invading, usually pay attention to inspection, once the pests and diseases are found should be immediately prevented, early detection, early prevention and control, the eradication of pests and diseases in the initial stage. Causes and Prevention of Death of Mushrooms and Mushrooms 1. Temperature is too high When mushroom buds form and grow, the temperature of the mushroom shed (house) suddenly rises or goes above 20Â°C for several consecutive days, coupled with poor ventilation, mushroom buds It will shrink yellow and eventually die. This kind of situation often occurs in the late autumn or early spring, because the mushroom bud is formed under the low temperature condition, its nutrient is transported by the mycelium to the fruit body, and when the temperature suddenly rises, nutrition returns from the fruit body back to the mycelium, mushroom bud. Death from lack of nutrition. Prevention methods: pay close attention to temperature changes, adjust the temperature of the mushroom shed (house) according to the weather forecast, keep the temperature of the shed (room) below 20Â°C, and strictly prevent the temperature of the shed (room) from rising suddenly. Second, mushroom shed (house) poor ventilation in winter, mushroom farmers to maintain the mushroom shed (house) temperature, often the mushroom shed (room) closed tightly, and ignore the ventilation. It may also be due to the mushroom shed (room) is too large, there are ventilation holes around, but the ventilation is uneven, the gas inside and outside the shed (house) cannot be exchanged, the gas supply in the shed (house) is insufficient, and the mushroom bud or young mushroom cannot be obtained. Sufficient oxygen and suffocation died. Control methods: In any case, pay attention to the ventilation of the mushroom shed (house), ventilation 1 or 2 times a day, ventilation in the morning or evening when the temperature is high, ventilation before and after noon when the temperature is low, ventilation time can be appropriately short some. In the windy days, only the ventilation holes of the lee are opened, and on the sunny days without wind, the ventilation holes are opened, so that the air is fully circulated. 3. Improper use of water During the growth of young mushrooms, water is directly sprayed on the mushroom bed and the mushroom body to make the humidity in the mushroom shed (house) excessive. If the mushroom shed (room) is poorly ventilated, the water on the mushroom body cannot be timely. Dissipate, and form a film of water on the surface of the mushroom body, be stained with water, or cause bacterial disease, so that young mushrooms rot to death. Bacterial tube or cover soil lack of water, young mushrooms can not get enough water and die. It is also possible that when the temperature of the mushroom shed (room) is high, the mushroom body is directly sprayed with water, and the mushroom bud is suddenly stimulated to die. Control methods: When the mushroom shed (room) temperature is above 20Â°C, do not spray water; pay attention to ventilation when each water spray, do not spray water; in the bud or young mushroom period can not directly spray water on the mushroom body and On the mushroom bed, water should be sprayed to the ground and space to maintain the suitable humidity of the mushroom shed (house); when the water content of the fungus tube or covering soil is insufficient, replenish water and humidity in time. 4. Edible mushrooms planted in densely packed beds such as Agaricus bisporus and Coprinus comatus are too thin for the culture material or the soil is too thin. After the soil is covered, the mycelium grows quickly and forms dense mushroom buds on the surface layer. The need to make some buds die. Bag mushroom plants such as mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, etc., when the mycelium is not yet mature, the case of large temperature difference between day and night, or the number of flip bags too much, soaking time is longer, it will form a dense mushroom buds, most of these buds death. Control methods: The thickness of the cover soil is controlled at 3 to 5 cm; the soil moisture is promptly sprayed and dampened after the soil covering, so that the soil moisture content is maintained at 18% to 20%. The bacterial bag was cultured and cultivated until the mycelium was physiologically mature, and then the buds were regenerated. The temperature difference stimulation time during the budding can not be too long, 3 to 4 days. V. Pests and pests and improper use of pesticides Pests or excessive spraying or overdosing of the drug concentration will cause death of mushroom buds or young mushrooms, or even failure of cultivation. Control methods: No chemical measures during fruiting, prevention and killing can be used and manual killing methods. If you must use pesticides, you can only use low-toxicity, low-residue drugs after the mushroom is harvested, and use the concentration within the allowable range.
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