In the fall of 2000, the Guodian Base of the Shandong Forest Tree Seedlings Breeding Center introduced golden pear seedlings from South Korea and established a high-standard "Y"-shaped demonstration demonstration pear orchard. The test park covers an area of â€‹â€‹13.3 hectares and belongs to the transitional area between the piedmont plain and Xiaoqinghe alluvial plain. The terrain is flat, the soil is fertile, sandy loam soil, and the groundwater level is 21m. The average annual temperature in the area is 13.4Â°C, the extreme minimum temperature is -22Â°C, and the extreme maximum temperature is 42.5Â°C; the average frost-free period is 210 days, the sunshine duration is 2640.2 hours, the accumulated temperature is 1020Â°C or more; the annual average precipitation The amount is 698.6mm, precipitation is mostly concentrated in July-August, accounting for about 60% of the annual precipitation. Referring to the Korean pear orchard cultivation model, the planting density of the pear orchard is 16m, and the â€œYâ€ shape is used to form a â€œYâ€ shaped reinforced concrete frame. The production management was conducted in accordance with the pollution-free pear production technical regulations. In 2003, it was approved by the Shandong Provincial Bureau of Quality and Standards Supervision as a pollution-free pear production base.
1. The material and structure of the â€œYâ€-shaped frame are selected from the cement prefabricated materials in consideration of durability and material price. "Y" shaped stand and post. Column 12cm20cm, height 100cm, left triangular iron prefabricated parts to prepare for welding with the side column; side column 12cm9cm, length 3.7m, triangular iron prefabricated parts at both ends, one end welded with the column, the other end welded with the other side column. Two pillars are welded forward and backward at the top of a column, and the angle between the pillar and the ground plane is 45Â°. Each "Y" shaped frame is welded at the top of the side column, and the left and right sides form a conjoined body. The "Y" shaped frame is 3.5m high and 6m wide. For planting rows, a "Y"-shaped frame is planted every 8 to 10 meters apart, and the concrete foundation must be preliminarily made on the ground. The buried depth of the column is 50 cm, and concrete is poured around. Sequential planting line, spacing 80 ~ 100m, each side of the column opposite two posts, one end of the ground inclined, one end of the top side of the side column from the top 2 / 3. At each end of the "Y"-shaped frame of each row, a pillar shall be provided on the inner side of each side column, and two anchors shall be provided on the outside. From the ground 0.5m, the first No. 8 wire is erected on the side column of the Y-shaped frame, and the second, third and fourth wire is set at 1m, 1.5m, and 2m from the ground. A fifth wire is placed at the top of the column, and each wire is tied with a wire and fixed on the side column.
2. Main cultivation techniques of "Y"-shaped scaffolds
2.1 Soil and Fertilizer Water Management
2.1.1 Dip deep into the soil and dig a parallel ditch outside the planting trench. The ditch is 50cm wide and 60cm deep. The topsoil is mixed with organic fertilizer and crop straws and then applied to the middle and lower parts. The subsoil is covered in the upper layer and then fully watered.
2.1.2 The tree tray cover and buried grass cover material can use wheat straw, wheat bran, corn stalks, straw and field weeds, covering the thickness of 15cm ~ 20cm, above the sporadic soil. After 3 to 4 years of continuous application, combined with autumn basal fertilizer, it can be turned once. It can also be combined with deep-opening of furrows to increase soil fertility and water storage capacity.
2.1.3 Planting green manure and inter-row weeds Intercropping plants such as shamrocks, alfalfa and other green manure crops will be converted into organic manure in pear orchard through methods such as overturning, covering or combining animal husbandry, and returning to abdomen.
184.108.40.206 Fertilization Principle According to the soil fertility, determine the amount of fertilizer, mainly organic fertilizer, mix appropriate amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer and biological bacteria fertilizer, and implement formula fertilization. The fertilizers used should not have adverse effects on the orchard environment and fruit quality. They are fertilizers registered or exempted by the competent administrative authorities.
220.127.116.11 Methods and Quantity of Fertilization
18.104.22.168.1 The basal fertilizer is applied after the fruit is picked in autumn and before the germination in the following year. Basal fertilizers are mainly organic fertilizers that have been fermented or retort at high temperatures, and can be mixed with a small amount of nitrogen fertilizers. Fertilization amount, first fruit tree is calculated according to 1.5kg to 2.0kg high-quality farmyard manure per 1kg pear production; full fruit period pear garden applies more than 3000kg per 667 square meters, young tree 667 square meters apply 2000 to 4000kg. The application method uses furrows or spreaders. The furrows are used to dig trenches on the outer edge of the canopy. The depth of the furrow is 50cm to 60cm. The spreader spreads the fertilizer evenly under the canopy, plunges 20cm, and turns the fertilizer into the soil.
22.214.171.124.2 Topdressing Soil Topdressing: Soil topdressing is usually three times a year. The first time before and after germination, nitrogen fertilizer is the main; the second time after flowering to flower bud differentiation, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are the main, nitrogen, phosphorus, Potassium was used as a mixture; the third application of phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer during fruit expansion was mainly potassium fertilizer. The amount of top dressing depends on the orchard soil fertility, tree age, and tree vigor. Generally, 0.5 kg of pure nitrogen, 0.3 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 0.5 kg of potassium chloride are applied per 100 kg of fruit. The top dressing method is to dig deep and wide strips 15 to 30 cm wide at the outer edge of the canopy, apply the fertilizer to the ditch, and apply water immediately after top dressing.
Foliar spray fertilizer: foliar spray fertilizer can be applied throughout the growing season, suitable for the early growth period. 4 to 5 times in the whole year, generally 2 times in the early stage of growth, with nitrogen fertilizer as the main; 2 to 3 times in the later stage, mainly phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, and also can spray the trace elements required for the growth and development of fruit trees according to the condition of the tree. The commonly used fertilizer concentration is urea 0.2-0.3%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2-0.3%, borax 0.2-0.5%, zinc sulfate 0.2-0.3%, and ferrous sulfate 0.3-0.5%. Foliar spraying should be carried out in the morning or evening.
2.1.5 Moisture Management
126.96.36.199 Irrigation of irrigation fruit gardens should pay attention to the growth cycle of pear trees, and depending on the soil moisture conditions, they are generally irrigated before, during, after the fruit expansion, and before the winter. Note that with the application of fertilizer, the soil moisture content of 60% to 80% of the maximum water holding capacity is appropriate.
188.8.131.52 Drainage When there is accumulated water in the orchards during the rainy season, the drainage should be drained in a timely manner.
2.2.1 planting density and pollination tree configuration plant spacing 16m, 111 plants per 667 square meters, north-south line. The pollination trees are two varieties, Yuan Huang and Hua Shan, and each row of golden pears is planted with a line of pollinating trees.
2.2.2 Saplings are planted in the first year at a height of 50cm. The main branches of the east and west directions are selected as the main branch of the "Y" shape tree. The second year of each main branch is 0.4m above the ground. Take a short cut, promote branching, and leave 2 side branches, evenly tied to the nearest wire with a piece of cloth.
2.2.3 Result period
184.108.40.206 The winter pruning shears are used to ensure that the trees are airy and transparent. The extension of the branch is 1/3 to 1/5 short, and the Wang branch is cut to 1/5. The weaker branch can be cut off. Because the golden pear has the characteristics of multiple terminal buds, it is not necessary to cut the top bud short. Otherwise, there will be a long phenomenon; the combination of buds will cause the main branch to produce short and middle branches; the continuous result branches will be updated and rejuvenated in time.
220.127.116.11 Summer pruning is mainly based on pulling and binding. In addition, remove the overhanging branches.
18.104.22.168 Too many flower branches, thin and weak branches and invalid branches are cut off before flowering.
2.3 Flower and Fruit Management
2.3.1 Thinning and Thinning of Fruits According to the characteristics of the large amount of gold pears, the inflorescences are defoliated before flowering, and the inflorescences that are too dense and too weak are mainly removed. An inflorescence is left at 10-15 cm and all the others are removed. The main inflorescences of the branchlets were left, and the bases and apical inflorescences were removed. The 1st, 2nd and 6th inflorescences at the base of inflorescence were removed, and the 3rd to 5th flowers were retained. Leave the leaves when thinning, and only cut the flowers.
2.3.2 Artificial pollination Pollination begins when the first pod is a bellflower. Generally, 2 to 3 flowers are given for each inflorescence, and the rest is completely removed. Each fruit of 20~30cm leaves a fruit, select fruit type, fruit size, fruit surface smooth fruit, the rest of all sparse.
2.3.3 bagging bagging twice, the first bag within 10 to 25 days after flowering, the second bagging within 30 to 40 days after flowering, bagging must be sprayed once before the insecticide, Fungicides. The fruit length of the bagged fruit is longitudinally developed, the bottom is narrow and slightly convex, the fruit stem is long and thick, and the fruit and the fruit table are connected firmly. At the same time, the fruit on the side or below the branch is selected, and the fruit above the branch is not suitable for bagging. , In addition, fruit petals, male pistil, etc. must be removed before bagging, otherwise it will contaminate the fruit surface. Choose a suitable paper bag to bag the fruit. When bagging, the bag should be bagged according to the principles of putting it on the first tree and then the tree. When bagging, note that the bag must be tight.
2.4 Pest Control
2.4.1 Physical control of defoliation After clearing orchard weeds and fallen leaves, concentrate deep, burn or retort green manure, reduce overwinter bacterium source, insect source; July and winter leaves after artificial capture of golden edge giardia; from July to August Bottles of sweet and sour vinegar are usually hung with 2 to 4 pieces per 667 square meters, and the ratio is generally: 1 piece of sugar, 0.8 pieces of vinegar, 0.2 pieces of wine, and 6 pieces of water; a frequency-vibration lamp is installed on each hectare for light trapping.
2.4.2 Chemical control before spraying 5 Baume degrees of lime sulfur; flower before spraying M-45800 times +1.8% edforin (North farmers) 5000 times + cypermethrin 2000 times + borax 200 times + Tianda 2116 800 times; after the first time after flowering medicine: 70% ketamine 800 times +2% avermectin 5,000 times + dying net 2000 times + scorpion net 1200 times + golden century (foliar fertilizer) 500 times; The second time after flowering (spraying before bagging): 70% ketroxone 800 times + big M-45800 times + Lebens 1000 times + osmium net 1200 times; at the end of May spray 1:2:200 Bordeaux mixture Spraying in the second half of June, the bagging prodrug: 600 times chlorothalonil + 2% avermectin 5000 times + diflubenzuron 1500 times; late July spray 1:2:200 Bordeaux mixture + 300 times potassium dihydrogen phosphate In mid-August, Bordeaux's solution was sprayed 1:2:200 times; in 2000, it was sprayed 2000 times.
Author unit: College of Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University
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