The common diseases and control methods of spring lettuce are currently the critical period for the production and management of spring lettuce, and are also the high incidence of common diseases. Recently, technicians from Dingzhou Vegetable Station in Baoding conducted an inspection of the lettuce cultivation base in Ta Xuan Village and found that there were many problems. Downy mildew, virus disease, and cracks were common. Now I will introduce the field symptoms and prevention methods of common diseases to everyone for the reference of farmers.
First, the stem collapse: In the late middle and late enlargement of lettuce, the inner stem longitudinally split, some deep to the middle of the stem, and the cracked part is yellow-brown and perishable. The reason for this is the uneven supply of water and fertilizers, and the fact that the soil is too dry and too wet. When the stems are nearly mature, the outer skin has been lignified. At this time, a lot of water is poured, and the skin cannot expand and crack.
Control methods: scientific management of fertilizer and water, often keep the field moist, usually about 10 days watering once, and increase the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
Second, downy mildew: The disease is a major disease in the current production of lettuce, the main infection of the leaves, the seedlings become yellow after the onset of disease, adult disease, leaf disease from the bottom up. At the beginning of the period, yellowish-yellow subrounded or polygonal lesions appeared on the leaves. When the damp spots appeared, white moldy leaves grew, and sometimes the moldy layer could spread to the front of the leaves. The late lesions turn into yellow-brown and connect into pieces, causing the whole leaves to dry, and sometimes the bacteria can infect the stems and cause the stems to become dark.
Control methods: Use 72% Du Bang Ke Lu 600-800 times solution or 58% metalaxyl manganese zinc 500 times spray, 7-10 days, pay attention to alternate medication.
3. Viral disease: Both the seedling stage and the adult stage can be pathologically manifested as mosaics, malformations, yellow flowers, dwarfing, necrosis, and other symptoms. The diseased plants are stunted and the yield and quality are severely reduced. The leaves showed light and dense mottled leaves with symptoms of bright veins, spots, and mosaics. The diseased leaves shrank, the leaf margins were irregular or nicks, dwarfs were observed in different degrees, and yellow and brown necrosis appeared on the leaves. Spots or veins turn brown.
Control methods: Before sowing, soak in seeds with warm soup or trisodium phosphate to treat the seeds. In addition, you can also use virus a, plant disease and disease to match green wind 95 or alizarin and other plant regulators to enhance plant resistance.
Fourth, sclerotinia disease: more than from the base of the stem, and gradually extended upward and downward, causing skin rot. The surface of the lesions were cotton-like hyphae with black murine bacillus nucleus inside, and the upper part of the diseased plants quickly wilted and died. After the storm spreads, the bacteria invade from the senescent parts of the plant. Low humidity, high density, can promote disease.
The control method used 50% of the speed can be 1500 times solution or 40% sclerotin net 1000-1500 times solution spray.
Five, convulsions: The performance of the slender stems, leaves internodes elongated, thin and small leaves, thick skin and less meat, food value is not high. The first reason is the shortage of fertilizer supply, especially the deficiency of base fertilizer, which inhibits the enlargement of the fleshy stem. The second is the lack of water supply. In addition, the temperature is too high, it is easy to cause convulsions.
Control methods: Apply enough base fertilizer, water and fertilizer management should be appropriate, to grasp the appropriate temperature during the seedling period.
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