Tenebrio is an arthropod door, commonly known as breadworm, and was first introduced from the former Soviet Union by the Beijing Zoo in 1952. It is the ideal feed insect for artificial breeding. Tenebrio larvae contain 51% crude protein and 29% fat. They also contain a variety of sugars, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, enzymes and minerals such as phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium, and calcium. With high nutritional value and broad market prospects, it can directly serve as a high-protein live feed for carnivorous animals. One kilogram of Tenebrio nutritional content is equivalent to 20 kilograms of formulated feed. It is used to raise frogs, cockroaches, cockroaches, cockroaches, snakes, ants, high-quality fish, ornamental birds, medicinal animals, rare fur animals and rare livestock and poultry, which can accelerate growth and development, increase disease resistance, and reduce feed costs. Improve output efficiency, etc. With 3-6% of fresh worms instead of the same amount of domestic fishmeal for broilers, the rate of weight gain can be increased by 13%, the feed remuneration can be increased by 23%, and the Chinese frog can be fed with Tenebrio molitor, which can be sold in two years. It is the main feed for the artificial breeding of Chinese Rana sylvatica and has been greatly observed by frog-raising households in three provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.
At present, the control conditions of the culture conditions of the mealworms are low and the scale is small, so the production cycle is longer and the yield is lower. Such as the material temperature automatically controlled at 28 Â°C -32 Â°C, the ambient humidity of 65% -80%, and according to different growth period to provide suitable compound feed. Tenebrio production cycle can be shortened completely, which can make indoor annual output of up to 600 kg per square meter. In this way, standardized factory production can be realized, and the production cost can be reduced accordingly, thereby creating conditions for large-scale promotion and application, and improving efficiency. It is an effective way to convert low-cost plant feeds such as bran and leafy vegetables into high-quality live protein feeds. More broad.
First, the biological characteristics of Tenebrio adults: Tenebrio molitor is a fully metamorphic insects, that is, adults, eggs, larvae, cockroaches four state. The newly emerged adults' first pair of wings are soft, white, then yellow, yellow-brown, gradually becoming black with a metallic luster, the head is of the frontal type, the base of the lip is not more than the tactile base, and the adult is in the process of emergence. The head, chest, and feet are light brown, and the abdomen and elytra wings are milky white. They start to be young and unwilling to move. The eel eel is hard and flexible. The second pair of wings are winged, but they can't fly due to degradation, and crawl quickly. After careful feeding, adult populations copulate, lay eggs, and adults lay eggs at 2-4 capsules each time. Each female lays about 300 eggs and is spawned under the screen at the bottom of the feed. The adult period is about 50-70 days. Eggs: very small, milky white, oblong, long diameter 0.7-1.2 mm, short diameter of about 0.3-0.8 mm. The egg surface is the egg shell and the inner layer is the yolk membrane. It is filled with milky white egg material. The egg period is 8-10 days. Adults lay the most eggs at 27Â°C-32Â°C, and they also have high quality. Less than 18Â°C â€‹â€‹seldom spawn and spawn, and no eggs are mated at less than 10Â°C. Larvae: The shape resembles that of a golden beetle and a tortoiseshell. The body is slender and the base of the lip is obvious, that is, there is a clear suture between the upper lip and the forehead. Plant foods. The newly hatched larvae are milky white, about 2 mm in length, and are later molted, one for each pod. It turns brown-yellow. The mature larvae are 20-30 millimeters long. The body segments are obvious. There are 3 pairs of thoracic feet. In the ninth pelvic section there is a pair of tail processes. The large body is 3-3.5 mm wide and weighs 0.13-0.24 g. When in the last molt feed surface to pupate. Larval period is about 80 days. Pupa: just become a mature larva pupa, milky white, soft surface, very immature. After an off-white body color, some hard surface, is typical of naked pupa, pupa length of 15-20 mm, width of 3 mm, a weight of about 0.15-0.25 g? Only. There pale back vertical bar, the black nozzle. Milky abdomen side projecting (male pupae emulsion projecting inconspicuous, base healing, toward the rear end. Obvious female pupae, the end portions of the flat, slightly horny, bifurcation, outwardly bowed significant). The chest is large, with wings and appendages. The first section is also large with a pair of black eyes.
Second, the Tenebrio culture conditions Cultured Tenebrio, we must first solve the species of insects, feed, equipment and other issues. (A) The most important species of insect breeding Tenebrio is a kind of insects, adult larvae, cockroaches, adults can do species worms. After the adult larvae are bought, they are fed into a wooden dish containing wheat bran and fresh vegetables are added. If you buy cockroach, every 0.5 kg cockroach placed in a sieve box containing wheat bran, and then placed in a wooden dish containing feed, numbered shelves, waiting for its emergence, pay attention to remove dead cockroaches. Another example is the purchase of adult worms, which are placed in sieve trays containing feed. Every 7 days, the adults are screened out for change. The eggs are mixed with eggs in the mash. In the wooden trays, the shelves are continued to hatch. After careful selection and feeding of various stages of insects, all species of insects can be breeding. However, it is better to use larvae as an insect, and it is convenient to transport them. (II) The main feed for the mealworm mealworm is wheat bran, which can also be supplemented with glutinous bran, comminuted straw, etc. (Maize flour is fine, airtight, and can not be used as feed for Tenebrio molitor, corn bran can also be used), and the main dish is cabbage. Radish, potatoes, and other leafy vegetables are used to supplement vitamins, trace elements, and water. In order to purify the rejuvenating population and accelerate the growth, a small amount of glucose powder, fish meal, etc. can also be added to the feed. Every 0.5 kg of mealworms can eat 1.5 kg of wheat bran and 3 kg of vegetables in a generation cycle. (3) Equipment 1. Farming Tenebrio must have breeding houses, breeding houses should be translucent and ventilated, and winter heating and insulation facilities should be provided. The size of the breeding house can be determined depending on the number of cultured yellow mealworms. Under normal circumstances, each room of 20 squares can raise 300-1000 trays 2, feeding Tenebrio paniculata, making drawers wooden tray, generally rectangular, specifications are 60 cm 45 cm 6-8 cm, plate thickness 1 cm . The bottom is nailed with a fiberboard. Sieve plate: also rectangular, it should be placed in a wooden tray, specifications are 55 cm 40 cm 6 cm, plate thickness is 1 cm, the bottom with 12 mesh wire mesh bottom, nailed with triple ply bar. The wood used to produce the feeding tray is preferably soft and non-odorous. In order to prevent the insects from crawling out, plastic sheets must be placed on the four frames of the feeding tray. 3. Place a wooden frame for feeding the plate. Make a wooden frame according to the number of breeding and the number of feeding plates. Connect the wooden frame together with the square wood and fix it so as to prevent skewing or dumping, but then you can put the feeding plate in order. Emissions on shelves. 4, sieve tray, sieve. Several kinds of iron screens are used as the bottom, and 12-mesh large holes can be screened for eggs. 30 holes in the hole can be made 1-2 sieves, used to sieve insects of the older insects, 60 holes can also be made 1-2 sieves, with rice sieve insects of young instars. 5. The internal requirements of the breeding house. The temperature should be kept between 15Â°C and 25Â°C in winter and summer. If the temperature is lower than 0Â°C, the insects will not eat or grow. Above 35Â°C, the fever of the worm will burn. Humidity should be kept between 60-80%. The ground should not be too wet. In the winter, it must be warmed. If it is not winter, it can be collected for winter measures. In the summer, it should be ventilated. There should be a thermometer and a hygrometer in the room.
Third, Tenebrio culture technology according to the sequence of insects are described separately (A) adult stage from the long fast, fat mature larvae of the disk just changed out, healthy fat maggots, hand gently into the enamel disc, The tray is a 12-mesh sieve tray. The operation procedure is to evenly put the tray into a 1 cm thick wheat bran, then place the 12-month sieve tray in a wooden tray, and then evenly put 1 cm thick wheat. Bran, and then put into the pick, picking, do not use force when pinching, can not throw dumping, to prevent damage to the body inside and outside the body, the current method of provocation is only hand rub, can not use the dumplings, chopsticks folder. Be proactive and timely to prevent insect bites. A thin layer of enamel is placed on each sampan plate, and the scorpion cannot be stacked into a thick layer and cannot be squeezed, flipped or bumped. Wash before provocation, and prevent chemical contact with the carcass. The platter is sent to the worm room and can be picked up alternately and horizontally until it emerges. When the worms start feeding, they are put on shelves for easy management. The temperature of the pupa is controlled at 25Â°C-30Â°C and the relative humidity of the air is 60%. -70% is good, and about 90% of the pupae will become adults within about 6-8 days. The newly emerged adult was very immature and not active. It became darker after about 5 days, and the cobwebs became hard. Male and female adult colony copulation is usually in the dark, long mating time, spawning female tail inserted in the sieve hole output. Tenebrio are insects that have been mated several times in their life and spawned many times. Each adult female lays 3-5 eggs at a time, and one egg produces 50-350 eggs. The egg's life span is 30-80 days. We must operate according to actual conditions. During the spawning period, do not stir randomly. When you find that a layer of egg is attached to the bottom of the sieve pan, you can change the pan. At this time, the adult eggs are screened and placed in another tray containing the feed, the dead insects are set aside, the feed is added, and the egg tray is changed for 3-7 days. Because the adults in the spawning period need a lot of nutrition and moisture, wheat bran and vegetables must be added in a timely manner, and fish meal can also be added. If the nutrition is insufficient, the adults will bite each other and cause losses. Control room temperature 25 Â°C -30 Â°C, air relative humidity 60 Â°C -70 Â°C, indoor dark light, low light is good, starting adult wings from white, soft, gradient yellow to black hard, from weak to strong, this period can not Feeding. During the adult breeding period, some adult adults died after reproduction, and they were naturally dead. A period of time when the live insects bite into a shell, a large part of the adult worms were killed by the larvae. During the adult period, adults should be prevented from fleeing. Always check and find out the cause of escape. If you escape and come into contact with the eggs, you will eat the resulting eggs and lose them. At the same time prevent high temperatures and natural enemies. At room temperature higher than 35Â°C, adult oviposition significantly decreased and irritability occurred. In order to improve the utilization rate, hatching rate and survival rate, adults with too many dead eggs and few spawning eggs can also be eliminated after the peak period of egg production and fed as bait. It is necessary to control the proper temperature and humidity in the breeding house, ventilate it in summer, and reduce the temperature. Winter heat preservation, humidification, indoor temperature is lower than 15 Â°C, very few spawning. Below 10Â°C, adults do not move. In winter, the relative humidity of the air is low, and the survival and reproduction of adults are greatly affected. Humidification and moisturization are important links. (B) eggs hatching adult eggs in the wooden tray filled with feed, will replace the wooden tray containing the eggs on the shelves or horizontally intersecting quail and hatch naturally, you can naturally hatch larvae, pay attention to observation, should not turn , to prevent damage to the ovary or to injure larvae in the hatchery center. The worms in the adult wormhouse can be wormed for more than a week under the same conditions. When larvae are present on the surface of the feed, 1st worms have already been born. (3) Larval eggs This period of time before hatching into larvae and pupae is known as larval stage, and all instar larvae are the best feed for Chinese Rana sylvatica. At present, the purpose of rearing Tenebrio is to obtain older larvae as special baits for special culture. Therefore, the management of larvae is crucial. At temperatures of 20Â°C to 30Â°C and relative humidity of 50% to 60%, wheat bran and vegetables are fed. The larval period is approximately 100 days (80-180 days). Tenebrio eggs hatch after 7-9 days, the head first drilled egg shells, body length of about 2 cm. It eats part of the egg shell and climbs into the bran of the hatching plate to feed it on bran. When it grows to 4-5 mm, body color becomes yellowish, and after 1-2 days of stopping, the first time the skin is moulted, the skin is white, and it becomes light yellow after about 2 days. When growing up, the first skin of each pod is one year old, and the average weight of the second-instar larvae is about 0.03-0.05 grams. Under normal management, 100,000 pieces must be guaranteed on each plate. Although small insects consume less material, they must also be satisfied so that they do not eat eggs or small larvae. Frequently disintegrate the leaves on the surface of the bran and spray on the bran surface. Glucose powder water, adjust the humidity, the optimum material temperature is 25 Â°C -28 Â°C, air relative humidity is about 65%. When the bran is eaten, it turns into tiny particles of insect feces. When the amount of insect feces is large, the feces must be sieved out, sieved with a 60-mesh sieve, and the new bran be added after the sieve and the dish should be fed normally. A large number of insects can be divided into two plates. Note that when the amount of insects is large, the temperature of the material is increased due to insect movement and heat, and if the room temperature is 30Â°C, the material temperature in the pan is likely to be 36Â°C-38Â°C and the larvae will die due to high temperature. The larvae grow faster at the age of 3-4, increase the consumption of materials, and increase excretion. The body length is 10-20 mm, and the body width is about 1 mm-2 mm. The average body weight is about 0.07-0.15 g. This period of time is well managed. The daily feeding of bran and leaves is a time when the amount of daily feed of wheat bran and vegetables is about 10% of the body weight of the larvae, and it is also necessary to be flexible in accordance with environmental conditions. The excrement at this time must be sieved once every 10-15 days and sieved with a 30 mesh sieve. Then add a new feed. If the amount of insects is large, you should also pay attention to the simultaneous separation of the screen insects. After 2-3 months of normal management, the larvae become older larvae. At this time, they ingest more food, have faster growth and development, and have more defecation. When the larval body reaches 22 mm-32 mm, the body weight is the maximum (0.15-0.20 g). The old larvae are also the best time for live food. Do a good job of raising and managing the older larvae, and get a lot of good quality insects and dragonflies. It is also very important. Feeding bran and green vegetables every day this time can not be too wet, and the amount can not be too much. If the insect tray is too wet, the insects will die of water and die. If the older larvae gradually become paralyzed, seedlings should be singled out to prevent the larvae from eating the carcasses. At the same time pay attention to larvae escape.
(d) The larvae of the pupal stage larvae on the surface of the feed, climbed to the surface of the feed layer before the larvae of the pupae larvae, and the bodies of the pupae slowly retracted after the pupation. The pupation is completed during the last pupal of the pupae and the pupation can be done in a few seconds. Ends within. During the flood season, on the surface, it is not edible, but the organs in the body are undergoing tremendous changes. They are also very sensitive to external environmental conditions. They must maintain a suitable temperature of 25Â°C-30Â°C and an air relative humidity of 65%. Health, no smoking, pesticides, chemicals. Do not squeak without pushing. Promptly in order to avoid being bitten by larvae. Adult adults are fed in a timely manner to prevent adults from biting wounds that are not feathered. In the flood season, we must prevent rodents, prevent ants and other pests. Some cockroaches are infected with viruses during the process of phlegm-removal, and become dead cockroaches after they have become paralyzed. Therefore, they should be checked frequently and found that 0.310Ë‰6 bleach solution was sprayed to disinfect and sterilize dead cockroaches at the same time.
Fourth, disease prevention and control 1, soft rot disease occurs in the rainy season. After onset, the larvae slowed down, their appetite decreased, their feces became thin, and they eventually became black and died. The cause of the disease was damp indoor air, excessive stocking density, and excrement removal. Excessive force during transportation caused injury to the parasites. Soft worms were found, and the dead worms were taken out in time, parked with green material, cleaned up for residual food, and adjusted for indoor humidity. Mix with 0.25 g chlorotoxin or chlortetracycline and 250 g wheat bran. 2. After the diseases of the stem blight disease body, the tail and head dry up and develop to dry up and die. The cause is that the air is too dry and the feed is too dry. In particular, the stove was made in winter and the air was dry and serious. He is most afraid of dryness, low humidity, and can easily die. The prevention and control measures are timely feeding of vegetables during the air-dry season, watering the ground, steam, and setting the basin to cool and humidify.
V. Management measures It is very important to master the breeding techniques and management measures in the breeding process of Tenebrio. It is related to the rate of reproduction of Tenebrio, the quality of insects, and economic benefits. 1. It is forbidden for non-feeding personnel to enter the breeding house. If non-entryable personnel must take lime from the outside of the door and enter. 2. In the life history of Tenebrio, four metamorphosis is an important link. By mastering the time, shape, and characteristics of each link's metamorphosis, we can grasp the techniques of breeding. 3, feed should be fresh, bran is not bad, vegetables do not rot, it is best to use coarse bran. 4, in the larval period, each off a skin, replace the feed, timely screening of feces, add new feed, prompt provocation, in the adult period of the bottom of the feed there are eggs and insect feces, easy to mold, it is necessary to change the disk. 5, in order to speed up the growth and reproduction, adult larvae after emergence, in the feed properly add glucose powder or vitamin powder, fish meal, day to feed vegetables. (cabbage, radish, potatoes, etc.) 6. The keeper must inspect every worm period every day. If any worms are found, they should be promptly removed to prevent germ infection. 7. Tenebrio breeding should be carried out according to plan. The number of larvae and the number of economic animals to be bred must be linked, so that the number of larvae of all ages must be recorded to ensure the success of Tenebrio breeding. 8, the cost of the mealworm breeding cost calculation. According to the actual estimation of self-feeding Rana sylvatica, each frog will feed 3 months a year, and will eat 2 3 instars every day for the first half month. It will eat 92 pigs, and will eat 1 day and a half every day. 4 - 3 instar worms 3 can eat 135, each frog feeding cost is 0.07 yuan, each frog feed a year for 4 months, eat 5-6 instars 3 per day, can eat 360 worms, The cost of each adult frog is 0.5 yuan. According to actual feeding calculations, there are 100,000 young frogs, which require 90 kilograms of 2-3 instars and 400 kilograms of 4-5 instars. Feeding frogs on the plan to feed Tenebrio as planned is the key to ensuring the successful breeding of economic animals. Specific operations can be based on actual conditions. At present, the farming of Tenebrio molitor as feed has provided great convenience for the special breeding industry, and has also achieved very good economic benefits. At the same time, it has laid a foundation for the development and utilization of Tenebrio molitor, raising frogs, raising birds and other special animals. The consumption of the Chinese court yellow chicken, black chicken, razor clams, and the target are all increasing, and some areas have also begun to build farms, in order to reduce the cost of farming Tenebrio and increase economic efficiency.
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